Genetic Engineering Essay & Paragraph
Genetic engineering is one of the recent wonders of science. This is done by altering, modifying, and reuniting the organism’s DNA and other nucleic acid molecules. It has opened the door to the mysterious world of genes. The following essays and paragraphs shed light on the introduction, success, prospects, pros and cons of genetic engineering for students.
An Introductory Essay on Genetic Engineering for Students
Introduction: Genetic Engineering is a recent development of science. It is the artificial manipulation, modification, and recombination of DNA or other nucleic acid molecules in order to modify an organism or population of organisms.
Scope of Genetic Engineering: The term genetic engineering initially meant any of a wide range of techniques for the modification or manipulation of organisms through the processes of heredity reproduction. As such, the term included both artificial selection and all the interventions of biomedical techniques. Among them are artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization (e.g., “test-tube” babies), sperm banks, cloning, and gene manipulation. But the term now denotes the narrower field of recombinant DNA technology, or gene cloning, in which DNA molecules from two or more sources are combined either within cells or in vitro and are then inserted into host organisms in which they are able to multiply. Gene cloning is used to produce new genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, or industry.
Development of Genetic Engineering: A big step forward in the development of genetic engineering was the discovery of restriction enzymes in 1968 by the Swiss microbiologist Werner Arber. In 1969, American molecular Biologist Hamilton O. Smith invented type II restriction enzymes. These enzymes are essential to genetic engineering for their ability to cleave a specific site within the DNA. This invention took the research of genetic engineering a long way. Based on Smith’s work, the American molecular biologist Daniel Nathans helped advance the technique of DNA recombination in 1970 -71 and demonstrated that type II enzymes could be useful in genetic studies. American biochemists Stanley N. Cohen and Herbert W. Boyer pioneered genetic engineering in 1973. They were among the first to cut DNA into fragments, rejoin different fragments, and insert the new genes into E. coli bacteria, which then reproduced.
Uses and Prospect of Genetic Engineering: Genetic engineering has advanced our understanding regarding many theoretical and practical aspects of gene function and organization. Using recombinant DNA techniques, bacteria have been created that are capable of synthesizing human insulin, human growth hormone, alpha interferon, a hepatitis B vaccine, and other medically useful substances. Plants may be genetically adjusted to enable them to fix nitrogen, to have resistance power against a hostile environment and certain diseases. Moreover, genetic diseases in living things can possibly be corrected by replacing “bad” genes with “normal” ones.
Conclusion: In spite of the endless prospect of genetic engineering, special concern has been focused on its achievements for fear that genetic engineering might result in the introduction of new unfavorable and possibly dangerous traits into micro-organisms. Such new traits may include resistance to antibiotics, production of toxins, or a tendency to cause disease. So, it is necessary to be cautious in the use of genetic engineering.
Genetic Engineering Paragraph, 100 Words
Genetic engineering is one of the recent wonders of modern science. It is the manipulation, modification, and recombination of DNA or other nucleic acid molecules in an organism. Genetic engineering has opened the door to the mysterious world of genes. Using recombinant DNA techniques, bacteria have been created that are capable of synthesizing human insulin, human growth hormone, alpha interferon, a hepatitis B vaccine, and other medically useful substances. Plants can be genetically adapted so that they can fix nitrogen, withstand adverse environments and certain diseases. Even genetic diseases of humans, plants, or other organisms can be cured by replacing their “bad” genes with “normal” genes. In short, genetic engineering is a field of endless possibilities for us.